• Article 1 :-Web Browsing in Python

    Categories: Python ||

    To understand the concept of CGI, let us see what happens when we click a hyper link to browse a particular web page or URL.Your browser contacts the HTTP web server and demands for the URL, i.e., fil

  • Article 2 :-Python - CGI Programming

    Categories: Python ||

    The Common Gateway Interface, or CGI, is a set of standards that define how information is exchanged between the web server and a custom script. The CGI specs are currently maintained by the NCSA.

  • Article 3 :-Class Inheritance

    Categories: Python ||

    Instead of starting from scratch, you can create a class by deriving it from a preexisting class by listing the parent class in parentheses after the new class name.The child class inherits the attrib

  • Article 4 :-Built-In Class Attributes

    Categories: Python ||

    Every Python class keeps following built-in attributes and they can be accessed using dot operator like any other attribute −__dict__ − Dictionary containing the class's namespace.__doc__ − Clas

  • Article 5 :-Accessing Attributes

    Categories: Python ||

    You access the object's attributes using the dot operator with object. Class variable would be accessed using class name as follows −emp1.displayEmployee()emp2.displayEmployee()print "Total Employee

  • Article 6 :-Creating Instance Objects

    Categories: Python ||

    To create instances of a class, you call the class using class name and pass in whatever arguments its __init__ method accepts."This would create first object of Employee class"emp1 = Employee("Zara",

  • Article 7 :-Data Hiding

    Categories: Python ||

    An object's attributes may or may not be visible outside the class definition. You need to name attributes with a double underscore prefix, and those attributes then are not be directly visible to out

  • Article 8 :-Overloading Operators in Python

    Categories: Python ||

    Suppose you have created a Vector class to represent two-dimensional vectors, what happens when you use the plus operator to add them? Most likely Python will yell at you.You could, however, define th

  • Article 9 :-Base Overloading Methods

    Categories: Python ||

    Following table lists some generic functionality that you can override in your own classes −Sr.No.Method, Description & Sample Call1. __init__ ( self [,args...] ) - Constructor (with any optiona

  • Article 10 :-Class Inheritance in Python

    Categories: Python ||

    Instead of starting from scratch, you can create a class by deriving it from a preexisting class by listing the parent class in parentheses after the new class name.The child class inherits the attrib

  • Article 11 :-Built-In Class Attributes

    Categories: Python ||

    Every Python class keeps following built-in attributes and they can be accessed using dot operator like any other attribute −__dict__ − Dictionary containing the class's namespace.__doc__ − Clas

  • Article 12 :-Accessing Attributes

    Categories: Python ||

    You access the object's attributes using the dot operator with object. Class variable would be accessed using class name as follows −emp1.displayEmployee()emp2.displayEmployee()print "Total Employee

  • Article 13 :-Creating Instance Objects

    Categories: Python ||

    To create instances of a class, you call the class using class name and pass in whatever arguments its __init__ method accepts."This would create first object of Employee class"emp1 = Employee("Zara",

  • Article 14 :-Python - Object Oriented

    Categories: Python ||

    Python has been an object-oriented language since it existed. Because of this, creating and using classes and objects are downright easy. This chapter helps you become an expert in using Python's obje

  • Article 15 :-Destroying Objects

    Categories: Python ||

    Python deletes unneeded objects (built-in types or class instances) automatically to free the memory space. The process by which Python periodically reclaims blocks of memory that no longer are in use

  • Article 16 :-Creating Classes

    Categories: Python ||

    The class statement creates a new class definition. The name of the class immediately follows the keyword class followed by a colon as follows −class ClassName:'Optional class documentation string'c

  • Article 17 :-Python - Object Oriented

    Categories: Python ||

    Python has been an object-oriented language since it existed. Because of this, creating and using classes and objects are downright easy. This chapter helps you become an expert in using Python's obje

  • Article 18 :-User-Defined Exceptions

    Categories: Python ||

    Python also allows you to create your own exceptions by deriving classes from the standard built-in exceptions.Here is an example related to RuntimeError. Here, a class is created that is subclassed f

  • Article 19 :-Raising an Exceptions

    Categories: Python ||

    You can raise exceptions in several ways by using the raise statement. The general syntax for the raise statement is as follows.Syntaxraise [Exception [, args [, traceback]]]Here, Exception is the typ

  • Article 20 :-The assert Statement

    Categories: Python ||

    When it encounters an assert statement, Python evaluates the accompanying expression, which is hopefully true. If the expression is false, Python raises an AssertionError exception.The syntax for asse

  • Article 21 :-What is Exception?

    Categories: Python ||

    An exception is an event, which occurs during the execution of a program that disrupts the normal flow of the program's instructions. In general, when a Python script encounters a situation that it ca

  • Article 22 :-Overview of OOP Terminology

    Categories: Python ||

    Class − A user-defined prototype for an object that defines a set of attributes that characterize any object of the class. The attributes are data members (class variables and instance variables) an

  • Article 23 :-Argument of an Exception

    Categories: Python ||

    An exception can have an argument, which is a value that gives additional information about the problem. The contents of the argument vary by exception. You capture an exception's argument by supplyin

  • Article 24 :-Handling an exception

    Categories: Python ||

    If you have some suspicious code that may raise an exception, you can defend your program by placing the suspicious code in a try: block. After the try: block, include an except: statement, followed b

  • Article 25 :-Assertions in Python

    Categories: Python ||

    An assertion is a sanity-check that you can turn on or turn off when you are done with your testing of the program.The easiest way to think of an assertion is to liken it to a raise-if statement (or t

  • Article 26 :-Python - Exceptions Handling

    Categories: Python ||

    Python provides two very important features to handle any unexpected error in your Python programs and to add debugging capabilities in them −Exception Handling − This would be covered in this tut

  • Article 27 :-File & Directory Related Methods

    Categories: Python ||

    There are three important sources, which provide a wide range of utility methods to handle and manipulate files & directories on Windows and Unix operating systems. They are as follows −File Obj

  • Article 28 :-The rmdir() Method

    Categories: Python ||

    The rmdir() method deletes the directory, which is passed as an argument in the method.Before removing a directory, all the contents in it should be removed.Syntaxos.rmdir('dirname')

  • Article 29 :-The getcwd() Method

    Categories: Python ||

    The getcwd() method displays the current working directory.Syntaxos.getcwd()

  • Article 30 :-The chdir() Method

    Categories: Python ||

    You can use the chdir() method to change the current directory. The chdir() method takes an argument, which is the name of the directory that you want to make the current directory.Syntaxos.chdir("new

  • Article 31 :-Directories in Python

    Categories: Python ||

    All files are contained within various directories, and Python has no problem handling these too. The os module has several methods that help you create, remove, and change directories.The mkdir() Met

  • Article 32 :-The remove() Method

    Categories: Python ||

    You can use the remove() method to delete files by supplying the name of the file to be deleted as the argument.Syntaxos.remove(file_name)

  • Article 33 :-Renaming and Deleting Files

    Categories: Python ||

    Python os module provides methods that help you perform file-processing operations, such as renaming and deleting files.To use this module you need to import it first and then you can call any related

  • Article 34 :-The read() Method

    Categories: Python ||

    The read() method reads a string from an open file. It is important to note that Python strings can have binary data. apart from text data.SyntaxfileObject.read([count])Here, passed parameter is the n

  • Article 35 :-The close() Method

    Categories: Python ||

    The close() method of a file object flushes any unwritten information and closes the file object, after which no more writing can be done.Python automatically closes a file when the reference object o

  • Article 36 :-File Positions

    Categories: Python ||

    The tell() method tells you the current position within the file; in other words, the next read or write will occur at that many bytes from the beginning of the file.The seek(offset[, from]) method ch

  • Article 37 :-Reading and Writing Files

    Categories: Python ||

    The file object provides a set of access methods to make our lives easier. We would see how to use read() and write() methods to read and write files.The write() MethodThe write() method writes any st

  • Article 38 :-The file Object Attributes

    Categories: Python ||

    Once a file is opened and you have one file object, you can get various information related to that file.Here is a list of all attributes related to file object −Sr.No.Attribute & Desc

  • Article 39 :-The open Function

    Categories: Python ||

    Before you can read or write a file, you have to open it using Python's built-in open() function. This function creates a file object, which would be utilized to call other support methods associated

  • Article 40 :-Opening and Closing Files

    Categories: Python ||

    Until now, you have been reading and writing to the standard input and output. Now, we will see how to use actual data files.Python provides basic functions and methods necessary to manipulate files b

  • Article 41 :-The input Function

    Categories: Python ||

    The input([prompt]) function is equivalent to raw_input, except that it assumes the input is a valid Python expression and returns the evaluated result to you.#!/usr/bin/pythonstr = input("Enter your

  • Article 42 :-The raw_input Function

    Categories: Python ||

    The raw_input([prompt]) function reads one line from standard input and returns it as a string (removing the trailing newline).#!/usr/bin/pythonstr = raw_input("Enter your input: ")print "Received inp

  • Article 43 :-Python - Files I O

    Categories: Python ||

    Printing to the ScreenThe simplest way to produce output is using the print statement where you can pass zero or more expressions separated by commas. This function converts the expressions you pass i

  • Article 44 :-Packages in Python

    Categories: Python ||

    A package is a hierarchical file directory structure that defines a single Python application environment that consists of modules and subpackages and sub-subpackages, and so on.Consider a file Pots.p

  • Article 45 :-The globals() and locals() Functions

    Categories: Python ||

    The globals() and locals() functions can be used to return the names in the global and local namespaces depending on the location from where they are called.If locals() is called from within a functio

  • Article 46 :-The dir( ) Function

    Categories: Python ||

    The dir() built-in function returns a sorted list of strings containing the names defined by a module.The list contains the names of all the modules, variables and functions that are defined in a modu

  • Article 47 :-The PYTHONPATH Variable

    Categories: Python ||

    The PYTHONPATH is an environment variable, consisting of a list of directories. The syntax of PYTHONPATH is the same as that of the shell variable PATH.Here is a typical PYTHONPATH from a Windows syst

  • Article 48 :-The reload() Function

    Categories: Python ||

    When the module is imported into a script, the code in the top-level portion of a module is executed only once.Therefore, if you want to reexecute the top-level code in a module, you can use the 

  • Article 49 :-Namespaces and Scoping

    Categories: Python ||

    Variables are names (identifiers) that map to objects. A namespace is a dictionary of variable names (keys) and their corresponding objects (values).A Python statement can access variables in a local

  • Article 50 :-Locating Modules

    Categories: Python ||

    xWhen you import a module, the Python interpreter searches for the module in the following sequences −The current directory.If the module isn't found, Python then searches each directory in the shel

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